JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the creators of the format which involves compressing pictures as JPEG files. Specifically the standard was created in 1992 after six (6) years of the group’s organization by Eric Hamilton. It was originally publicly known as JFIF but was later amended. The standard was ISO certified two years later as ISO10918-1. Later Tom Lane a member of the Independent JPEG Group made JPEG successful via the implementation of the Open Source software which was accepted by related Companies into their products and services. With its launch into the public domain and certification as a standard the Committee then looked forward to examine its product and address its deficiencies.
Photographic images converted to JPEG often come in two formats JPEG/Exif which is usually used by Digital cameras and JPEG/JFIF commonly used across the web for storing and transferring images. The difference however, is usually understated and files are just referred to as JPEG. When a file is compressed to JPEG, this actually speaks to the code and bytes associated with the image.
JPEG is best used on realistic photographic images and paintings. It isn’t suitable for use with line drawings or iconic graphics. It is best to use JPEG for files that will not undergo much amendment for the image will lose its quality as it is edited. If editing is necessary it would be best to save the image in PNG format and then a copy exported to JPEG at a later time. Since compressing to JPEG will result in some loss of image quality, it is not recommended for use in the medical and astronomical image reproduction.
The file formats for JPEG is JPEG Interchange Format (JIF). It is however, not widely used because of some disadvantages of the standard. Therefore alternatives have been developed to fill the gap such as JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) and more currently Exchangeable Image File Format (Exiff) and ICC colour profiles. The basic difference between JIF and JFIF is that the latter is a scaled type of the former. Practically speaking though JFIF and Exiff standards are not compatible and usually the latter‘s file does contain JFIF header which actually proves beneficial when trying to access the image using JFIF compatible software.
In the last five years there have been pioneer efforts to develop new ways of compressing JPEG files to address the disadvantage of losing image quality when editing is done. To reap such benefits one must maximize improvements to coding coefficients. In doing so compression percentages increase for JPEG files even low quality compressed images. The PACJPG is a tool that may be used to achieve such an end.